This is part of a series of excerpts from essays commissioned by the Centre for International Governance Innovation. Read the full essay and see the entire series During the 15th and 16th centuries, Spain and Portugal asserted that because they discovered new navigation routes to territories in Asia and America, they also the right to trade with those territories.But the Dutch, a middle power with big trade aspirations, challenged those claims. They argued that international waters should be treated as a commons Liberum” because the sea can be used by one person without lessening the use of another.Dutch jurist Hugo Grotius compared a person claiming a right to exclude others from navigating the seas to the person who prevent any other person from taking fire from his fire or a light from his torch.

Item Type:ArticleItem Status:Live ArchiveAbstractAnalyses of judicial procedure in an Iberian context overwhelmingly focus on the role played by experts and elites in the construction of rather nebulous “networks of power”. This article asks questions of the involvement at court of the “middling sort”, upwardly mobile lay individuals embedded in or close enough to the village world to engage in humdrum and quotidian deals with its inhabitants: that is, people who were not counts, legal experts or churchmen, but were nonetheless locally important landowners.1 Via a series of case studies, this article shines a light on what these individuals did at court and why they went to court. It also ponders how disagreements were settled outside of the courtroom, and reflects upon what the diversity of dealings encoded in the apparent formality of legal proceedings, and the incidental reports of extra judicial agreements, actually tells us about social practice..

With an array of khaki, brown and forrest greens, the branding stands out in a hunting orange. Be sure to continue onward after the click for more images and let us know if you d grab a pair if these ever see retail shelves stateside. Adidas Originals has been on top of its lifestyle footwear line since the 1972 Munich Olympics when they set off to give their runners a comfortable post performance sneaker.

At the outset, I felt no need to acquaint myself with the six degrees of freedom. I’d never heard of the Great North Pacific Garbage Patch. I liked my job and loved my wife and was inclined to agree with Emerson that travel is a fool’s paradise. She joins us from Miami. And Roberte Exantus, she’s the president of the Haitian Student Association at Howard University, and she joins us from Washington. I thank you so much for speaking with us..